LINCOLN-KENNEDY & CZAR COINCIDENCES
To Orwell Today,
re: LINCOLN & KENNEDY COINCIDENCES
Dear Jackie Jura:
I am fascinated by the number of corresponding coincidences or interesting synchronisms found in the lives of presidents Lincoln and Kennedy. How many of them have been proven and what is the statistical probability of these coincidences not being unusual? I would like to add one more:
- The Tsar sent the war fleet of the Russian empire to assist President Lincoln during the American civil war
- In 1962, during the Kennedy presidency, a fleet of Russian ships transporting instruments of war were steaming towards America with less benign intent.
According to Nicholas Hagger in his "The Secret History Of The West" (O Books 2005) page 377:
"The Confederates offered Louisiana and Texas to Napoleon III if he would send troops against the north. Lincoln, following Tsar Alexander II's lead in freeing the serfs, issued an order to free all slaves in 1863. (In due course the Tsar sent the Russian fleet to support Lincoln.)"
To be accurate, the 1962 Soviet fleet carrying nuclear arms was heading for Havana, Cuba to assist the communist government there and not the American president.
The coincidence is limited to the description of the Russian war fleet sailing towards America. The intent of the two fleets were diametrically opposed.
Regards and goodwill,
Thanks for sending that coincidence about a fleet of Russian war ships sailing to America during Lincoln's and Kennedy's presidencies, albeit, as you say, for opposite reasons, ie in Lincoln's case to help him and in Kennedy's case to harm him.
In Lincoln's case the Russian fleet did arrive in America in 1863, but they weren't there to provide military support to the North against the South (which wasn't needed anyway because the Union's navy surpassed that of the Confederacy). The war ships were there with emissaries sent from Czar Alexander II, the Russian Emperor, to negotiate the sale of Alaska to the United States. Lincoln and the Czar had previously developed a mutually respectful relationship while arranging for the laying of continuous telegraph wire from Russia to the Pacific Coast of America.
Russia had recently lost the Crimean War (1856) against England and France and the Czar's navy was in no position to get involved in another war. In any event, there were no foreign nations involved in the American Civil War at that time, or ever, although Britain and France had at one time considered joining the war on the Confederate side. But Lincoln's foreign ambassadors had been successful in obtaining promises of neutrality and non-interference from Britain and all European countries.
Losing the Crimean war was one of the reasons Czar Alexander II (The Liberator) emancipated the serfs in February 1861, realizing, as he did, that Russia would need free men to defend the country in the future. No doubt this influenced Lincoln's decision to emancipate America's slaves in 1863 and have the freed men help fight on the Union's side - which they did.
Other Lincoln/Kennedy coincidences to Czar Alexander II are that all three were assassinated to thwart their policies of freedom and equality for their people, and all three were conjectured to have been assassinated by the same forces, ie an ancient global brotherhood conspiring toward tyrannical world domination.
If Lincoln had lived to fulfill another term, his 13th Amendment would have enforced the abolition of slavery and his policies for post-war Reconstruction would have disempowered the masterminds behind the South seceeding from the Union and causing the Civil War. Instead, Lincoln's successor - coincidently Johnson - pardoned high-level Confederates and allowed them back in Congress.
After Czar Alexander II's assassination in 1881 some of his emancipation policies were thwarted by his successor, his son Czar Alexander III, who was intimidated by the brotherhood who had assassinated his father and who, after his death in 1894, assassinated his son and successor, Czar Nicholas II, in 1917.
This same brotherhood put the Communists in power in Russia in 1917 and it was their war ships that were threatening America during Kennedy's presidency in 1962.
Thanks again for pointing out the coincidence of Russia sending war ships to both Lincoln and Kennedy - I'll add it to the LINCOLN & JFK COINCIDENCES list on ORWELL TODAY.
All the best,
ABRAHAM LINCOLN: PRAIRIE YEARS & WAR YEARS, by Carl Sandburg (pages 339-456):
...Intervention in America was a leading topic of diplomatic conversations in Europe. Leaders in England and France who favoured recognition of the Confederacy found Russia a hindrance. Late in '62 a personal letter from President Lincoln was transmitted to the Russian Foreign Minister, Gorchakov, at St. Petersburg, by Acting American Minister Bayard Taylor. Their conversation was published by order of Congress, though Lincoln's letter to Gorchakov was not made known.
"Russia alone has stood by you from the first, and will continue to stand by you," said Gorchakov. "Proposals will be made to Russia to join in some plan of interference. She will refuse any invitation of the kind. You may rely upon it, she will not change." From none of the Great Powers of Europe had the United States been able to win so positive a declaration. In this decision Russia was aligning herself against England and France, who had fought her so recently in the war in the Crimea....
Seward arranged secret understandings with Russia so momentous that he must have consulted with Lincoln about them. In America perhaps, only Seward and Lincoln knew what conditional assurances were given the Russian government as to the purchase of the peninsula of Alaska. Not to Nicolay nor Hay nor Noah Brooks, nor to others to whom the President sometimes revealed secrets of state, did he give any inklings. And not even to his bosom friend Thrulow Weed did Seward give clues. Estimates ran that it was worth from $1,400,000 to $10,000,000. The United States was to buy it as soon as convenient, the purchase price to include certain naval expenses of the Russian government - some such understanding was worked out between the Washington and St. Petersburg governments.
"Early in October '63 one Russian fleet lay in San Franciso harbor, another at New York with five first-class war vessels. Stalwart Muscovites in gay uniforms, outlandish whiskers, in excellent Russian, indifferent French and worse English, added merriment wherever they went. They sat for Brady photographs. They visited Meade's headquarters in Virginia, fell from the upper decks of calvary horses, ate heartily, carried their liquor well.
"Special writers filled many newspaper columns with tales of the Russian naval visitors, giving an extra spread to one shipboard reception where U.S. military officers and Mrs. Lincoln drank to the health of the Czar....To Bayard Taylor, author of travel books who had served as secretary of the American Legation at St. Petersburg under Minister Cameron, Lincoln wrote in December '63: 'I think a good lecture or two on "Serfs, Serfdom, and Emancipation in Russia" would be both interesting and valuable. Could not you get up such a thing?" Not long after, Taylor was addressing lyceum audiences on "Russia and the Russians". And Hay mentioned in his diary that the President went one evening to hear Taylor's lecture."
Alexander II of Russia, Wikipedia
Alexander II Nikolaevich, also known as Alexander the Liberator, was the Emperor of the Russian Empire from 1855 until his assassination in 1881. He was also the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Finland. Born in 1818, he was the eldest son of Nicholas I of Russia and Charlotte of Prussia, daughter of Frederick William III of Prussia and Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. His early life gave little indication of his ultimate potential; until the time of his accession in 1855, aged 37, few imagined that he would be known to posterity as a leader able to implement the most challenging reforms undertaken in Russia since the reign of Peter the Great... Some 26 years into his implementing changes he would, however, be assassinated in public by the Narodnaya Volya (People's Will) terrorist organization....
Alexander was carried by sleigh to the Winter Palace to his study where ironically, twenty years before almost to the day, he had signed the Emancipation Edict 1 freeing the serfs. Alexander was bleeding to death, with his legs torn away, his stomach ripped open, and his face mutilated. Members of the Romanov family came rushing to the scene. The dying czar was given Communion and Extreme Unction. When the attending physician, Dr. S. P. Botkin, was asked how long it would be, he replied "Up to fifteen minutes". At 3:30 that day the standard of Alexander II was lowered for the last time.
The assassination caused a great setback for the reform movement. One of Alexander II's last ideas was to draft plans for an elected parliament, or Duma, which were completed the day before he died but not yet released to the Russian people. In a matter of 48 hours, Alexander II planned to release his plan for the duma to the Russian people. Had he lived, Russia might have followed a path to constitutional monarchy instead of the long road of oppression that defined his successor's reign. The first action Alexander III took after his coronation was to tear up those plans. A Duma would not come into fruition until 1905, when Alexander II's grandson, Nicholas II, commissioned the Duma following extreme pressure on the monarchy as a result of the Russian Revolution of 1905.
A second consequence of the assassination was anti-Jewish pogroms and legislation. A third consequence of the assassination was that suppression of civil liberties in Russia and police brutality burst back in full force after experiencing some restraint under the reign of Alexander II. Alexander II's murder and subsequent death was witnessed first-hand by his son, Alexander III, and his grandson, Nicholas II, both future Czars, who vowed not to have the same fate befall them. Both used the Okhrana to arrest protestors and uproot suspected rebel groups, creating further suppression of personal freedom for the Russian people. Finally, the assassination inspired anarchists to advocate "'propaganda by deed' — the use of a spectacular act of violence to incite revolution."
History of Alaska (Purchase: William Henry Seward was secretary of state under President Abraham Lincoln when he began negotiating a deal for the United States to buy Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million -- or 2 cents an acre. Seward, born May 16, 1801, served as New York state senator from 1831 to 1834, then as the state's governor from 1839 to 1843. Lincoln appointed him secretary of state in 1861. During Lincoln's presidency, he began negotiating the purchase of Alaska, then Russian America. Zachary Kent, in "William Seward: the Mastermind of the Alaska Purchase," reports how Seward invited senators to dinner parties at his home. According to Kent, "While the senators enjoyed fine food and wine, Seward described how beautiful Russian America was reported to be." The purchase agreement was signed by Seward on March, 30, 1867, and approved by the U.S. Senate May 27, 1867. President Andrew Johnson signed the final treaty the following day and the transfer was made Oct. 18, 1867, in Sitka. In 1917, the third Alaska Territorial Legislature created Seward's Day to mark the signing of the treaty. That same year, lawmakers also designated Oct. 18 "Alaska Day." Many Americans of the period called the purchase "Seward's folly" or "Seward's icebox," thinking Alaska a snowy, icy wastelands. Of course, that was before Alaska was discovered by gold seekers, oil companies and tourists. Many streets throughout Alaska have been named after William Seward. A city on the Kenai Peninsula bears his name, and Alaska has a glacier, a passage, a peninsula, a creek, a highway and mountains named for him as well. And what about William Seward himself? The night John Wilkes Booth fatally shot Lincoln, a Confederate veteran named Lewis Payne entered Sewards bedroom and attacked him with a large knife. Fortunately, the blows were blunted by a neck brace Seward was wearing (according to The Lost Museum, a Web site sponsored by the City University of New York and George Mason University.). Seward continued to serve as secretary of the state under President Johnson, and it was during Johnson's administration that Seward completed the negotiations with Russia....)
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The Emancipation Reform of 1861 in Russia, Wikipedia
"The Peasant Reform of 1861" was the first and most important of liberal reforms effected during the reign of Alexander II of Russia. The reform, together with a related reform in 1861, amounted to the liquidation of serf dependence previously suffered by Russian peasants. The 1861 Emancipation Manifesto proclaimed the emancipation of the serfs on private estates and of the domestic (household) serfs. By this edict more than twenty-three million people received their liberty. Serfs were granted the full rights of free citizens, gaining the rights to marry without having to gain consent, to own property and to own a business. The Manifesto prescribed that peasants would be able to buy the land from the landlords...
Lincoln Emancipation Proclamation of 1863, Wikipedia
The Emancipation Proclamation is an executive order issued by United States President Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War under his war powers. It proclaimed the freedom of 3.1 million of the nation's 4 million slaves, and immediately freed 50,000 of them, with the rest freed as Union armies advanced. On September 22, 1862, Lincoln announced that he would issue a formal emancipation of all slaves in any state of the Confederate States of America that did not return to Union control by January 1, 1863. The actual order was signed and issued January 1, 1863; it named the locations under Confederate control where it would apply. Lincoln issued the Executive Order by his authority as "Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy" under Article II, section 2 of the United States Constitution.
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