To Orwell Today,
Thanks Jackie for the reply and the post WHERE IS JFK'S BIBLE?
Another question that goes with this is "who were the captain and co-captain that flew the Air Force One into Dallas - proof positive". Are there any pictures of these pilots and were they the same pilots who flew out of Love Field?
You know how rumors are, never know till the truth arrives.
Yes, but when the truth arrives make sure to recognize and embrace it (similar to the old adage, "when opportunity knocks, open the door").
The pilot and co-pilot of Air Force One for that entire trip to Texas (and every other trip JFK took in Air Force One while president) were, proof positive, Colonel James Swindal in the left seat, and Lieutenant Colonel Lew Hanson in the right seat. I've written previously about that last flight in the articles LBJ SWORE ON JFK'S BIBLE & LBJ AIR FORCE 2 TO 1 & JFK COFFIN AIR FORCE ONE & LBJ'S FAMOUS PHOTO OP
Above is a picture of the cockpit and Swindal (who died three and a half years ago - in April 2006 - at age 88) holding a model of Air Force One. Below is "the real thing" landing (with Swindal behind the controls flying JFK):
The smoke coming from the tires (normal when braking) reminds me of an anecdote told by Hugh Sidey in his 1964 book JOHN F KENNEDY, PRESIDENT where he describes flying on Air Force One with JFK from Washington, DC to Rhode Island. When they landed they had a blowout of the right tire and Swindal slowed it down so smoothly (to avoid too much pressure on the left tire) that JFK didn't realize there'd been a problem until after he'd disembarked - and saw all the fire engines and emergency vehicles rushing to assist.
But the most famous anecdotes about Swindal were that he arranged for JFK's coffin to be placed in the back of Air Force One by having several seats removed and bolting it to the floor.
Then he flew the body of JFK home to Washington from Dallas at the highest altitude and the fastest speed the plane had ever flown.
And then, at the funeral three days later, Swindal flew Air Force One over Arlington Cemetary, dipping its wings above JFK's grave.
Swindal - like the president he flew - was an anti-communist, democracy-defending patriot. During WWII Swindal had flown risky missions helping India and Burma against Communist China. And after the war he'd gone to Germany's aid flying in food and supplies during the Soviet Blockade of Berlin.
Those were battles close to JFK's heart as, during his presidency, JFK stood up to Communist China and Russia as they again attempted communist take-overs in India and Germany. See ON JFK'S DEATH, CHINA & UN & INDIA, ORWELL, JFK & CHINA & JFK WARMS COLD WAR & JFK & KHRUSCHCHEV
Just five months before JFK died, Swindal had flown him in Air Force One to Germany where JFK stood up to the Communists in one of his greatest speeches ever, closing with the most famous line of all: ICH BIN EIN BERLINER
Swindal didn't fly Air Force One for long after JFK's death - in part because LBJ preferred a different pilot - and in part because Swindal preferred a different president.
I was amazed to recently discover that after JFK was assassinated, and Swindal was replaced as pilot, that Air Force One was used by subsequent presidents to travel to meetings in Communist China and Russia, and also, top-secretly, by Henry Kissinger (official and unofficial warmongering advisor to every president since JFK, see ZIONISM IN AMERICA) who used AF-1 as his own private plane to rendezvous with Communist Vietnamese in Europe setting up detente. Below are two explanatory pages from a 2008 Air Force universtiy research report on THE HISTORY OF AIR FORCE ONE (transcribed underneath in italics):
In the Summer of 1959, Special Air Missions (SAM) accepted the delivery of three identical Boeing 707 (VC-137A) Intercontinental aircraft. Ike used these aircraft interchangeably while maintaining Columbine III as his presidential aircraft. In December 1959, Ike used the new VC-137A on his 11 nation tour to Europe and Russia but it was during the Presidential years of J.F.K. that presidential travel officially entered the jet age.
In 1962, SAM took delivery of a Boeing 707 (VC-137C), aircraft tail number 26000 piloted by Colonel Jim B. Swindal. It was delivered with a striking new exterior designed by Raymond Lowey. This new paint scheme captured a strong tasteful sense of national purpose and the American Presidency. In June 1963, Kennedy used this aircraft on his historic trip to West Berlin where U.S.-German relations were strengthened and strong support of German democracy was established.
On the morning of Nov. 22, 1963, President Kennedy flew to Dallas, Texas to mend political fences where he was fatally shot. After a short period, his body was put aboard the presidential aircraft as it was flown back to Washington. The new President, Lyndon Johnson elected to take the oath of office aboard Air Force One.
The photograph of the oath of office being administered to Lyndon Johnson with Mrs. Kennedy by his side is arguably one of the single most reproduced photographs ever taken aboard a presidential plane. At the funeral of President Kennedy and at the request of Mrs. Kennedy, who so profoundly stated, "Jack loved Air Force One and flying", Air Force One did a low level flyover of the funeral as a final salute to the president.
During the Johnson years, SAM 26000 was piloted by J.B. Swindal, Jim U. Cross, and P.L. Thornhill. During the Nixon years, Air Force One was piloted by Ralph D. Albertazzie and was used in a number of interesting ways. President Nixon used Air Force One during the Vietnam War for clandestine flights to shuttle National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger to Europe to meet secretly with the North Vietnamese. The first of thirteen trips took place in 1970 and were even kept secret from the Secretary of Defense, Secretary of State, and the Director of Central Intelligence. As Henry Kissinger stated: "I absolutely could not have conducted the shuttle diplomacy without Air Force One. And I might add, there were not many volunteers for that sort of thing in the rest of the administration. So we approached the Vietnamese through General Vernon Walters who was then military attache in Paris, and suggested a private dialogue, and they accepted it. What I generally...what I often did in fact, almsot always did, is to go to some party in Washington and go straight from the party to Andrews and take off." To keep his cover, Kissinger would attend the parties with a female guest. After making sure that everyone had seen him at the party, he would take off in his White House car with his female guest. Everyone at the party thought he was leaving to have a nice weekend when in reality he would drop his guest off, and then head overseas for secret meetings with the Vietnamese. Doctor Kissinger developed quite a reputation as a ladies man but the diversion worked as Air Force One was used as a tool of diplomacy. SAM 26000 was also used for such memorable trips as President Nixon's visit to the People's Republic of China in February 1972 and the Moscow summit later in 1972 with Leonid Bresnev.
After over ten years of service, SAM 26000 was replaced by a new BOEING 707, SAM 27000 in 1972. It was on this aircraft that President Ford allowed President Nixon to use the aircraft for his final trip to California after his resignation as President...."
end quoting from History of Air Force One
For further "proof positive" (as you request) as to who flew JFK in and out of Love Field, Dallas on the day he was assassinated, read the following excerpts from articles written about Air Force One and James Barney Swindal, whose final landing was also at Arlington Cemetary, not far from "his president", John Fitzgerald Kennedy. ~ Jackie Jura
GONE WEST: COLONEL JAMES SWINDAL, 88
JFK's Air Force One Pilot Flew JFK To Dallas -- And LBJ Back
Aero-News, May 1, 2006
James Barney Swindal passed away recently, another of the World War II Generation, another retired Colonel whose stories of flying the Hump and the Berlin Airlift were once the everyday recollections of hundreds, thousands, of Air Force transport pilots. But being a standout even in that august company, he was selected for a special mission. That mission led to his most famous flight -- with a casket for cargo and a grim and shocked load of passengers.
You see, Col. James B. Swindal was the aircraft commander for Air Force One when it had to carry the body of murdered President John F. Kennedy from Dallas to Washington on November 22, 1963. Just before takeoff, in a scene that would reach millions through the pages of LIFE Magazine, the oath of office was administered to Vice-President Lyndon B. Johnson by US District Judge Sarah Hughes aboard the plane, with Johnson's wife Lady Bird, and Kennedy's shocked widow Jacqueline standing by.
When Swindal slipped away on April 25th, 2006 at Cape Canaveral Hospital in Cocoa Beach, FL, from complications from a broken hip, he was 88 years old and one of the last links to that unhappy flight. Jackie Kennedy, LBJ, Judge Hughes all preceded the pilot in death. His Co- Pilot, Lew Hanson, passed away in January. Kennedy's killer and Kennedy's killer's killer are long underground; even LIFE Magazine is vanished into ancient history. Perhaps it is fitting that the last of the figures remaining from those bleak days was a pilot, a man who simply did his duty as best he could.
The impact of the Kennedy assassination roiled the nation like very few events (Pearl Harbor, the Challenger explosion, 9/11) have done. Anyone who was alive then can tell you where he was at the moment he heard. Afterward, the nation descended into a black night of investigations, accusations, recriminations and conspiracy theories.
But at the time Swindal knew nothing of what was to come, and nothing of what the Kennedy assassination might signify. The idea that a lone crank could have, would have gunned down the photogenic young leader was not on anyone's mind; it seemed that such a terrible crime must have a great significance, and must be backed by a great power or some insidious plan. See JFK OPPOSED MONOLITHIC CONSPIRACY & WHO KILLED JFK?
There were several orders to start engines, then to stop them. Finally the go call was made. Air Force One was given a clearance unique, perhaps, in history. "Air Force One take Northwest O-One left, cleared to Andrews Air Force Base by any route, any altitude."
So when Swindal and crew -- co-pilot Lt. Col. Lew Hanson, and flight engineer CMS Joe Chappelle, launched USAF VC-137C 62-6000 (26000 for short) that afternoon, they were prepared for trouble. They carried much more fuel than they needed, in case they arrived at a Washington under attack; they climbed high to be safe. Attack by whom? Safe from what? Well, who could say? But at 41,000 feet over the American interior, in the shelter of a Boeing jet and the hands of a hand-picked crew, the Presidents old and new were safe as could be from whatever it might be.
The crew had done something else to prepare the airplane for JFK's last flight. "[T]here was no place on Air Force One for a casket, and we sure didn't want to put it in the cargo hold," Swindal recalled for Florida Today in 2003. "But back there in the rear were seats for stewardesses, Secret Service and other passengers. So we unbolted those seats -- about four rows, I'm guessing, at least eight seats -- and made a space about the size of a couch. And there was enough room for people to walk around."
They also had to cut a rear bulkhead, the plane's engineer, Chief Master Sergeant Joe Chappelle, remembered in March, 1998. "We knew we would be bringing the president’s body back on 26000, but we didn't want to put his casket in the cargo hold. He was the president. But it wouldn't make the turn through the door of the aircraft. We had to remove a bulkhead near the rear so we could turn it. We also removed two rows of seats. That made an area for the casket to rest. I'll never forget Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson helping us load the casket. It was just a few minutes later he was sworn in as president onboard the aircraft."
When the Presidential bier was loaded aboard the jet, Col. Swindal left his preflight preparations to render his President -- his boss -- one last (or was it?) salute.
Swindal had been a VIP pilot at Andrews AFB for a long time when he was selected, after the 1960 elections, to fly the new President-Elect. Kennedy was sworn in on Jan. 20, 1961, and Swindal remained as his pilot. Swindal's qualifications included 11.500 hours, plus the aforementioned experience flying the great airlifts of the mid-20th Century, the Hump (Himalayas) airlift in the China-Burma-India theater, and the Berlin Airlift in the late forties. You might say his career had been shaped by the same events that shaped Kennedy's.
(The president was a PT boat skipper in the war, and always was interested in Berlin as a nexus of the Cold War it fell to him to fight).
At first, their mount was a VC-118, a Douglas DC-6 in military VIP trim, but the Air Force had already experimented with Boeing 707s as VIP aircraft. (One of those early 707s, a VC-137B that flew as SAM 970 when not hauling the President, is in Seattle's Museum of Flight today. It was actually the first jet to carry a President, Kennedy).
But a new era, the Space Age, deserved a new airplane, and in 1962 the Air Force One of the Kennedy and Johnson years was delivered.
Coded SAM (Special Air Mission) 26000 from its Air Force serial number, the plane was only called Air Force One when the President was aboard, but it was reserved for Presidential use, unlike the other planes in the Andrews AFB VIP fleet.
With a paint job created by industrial designer Raymond Loewy and fine-tuned by the aesthetically attuned First Lady, the plane became not just a time management and travel tool, but a flying advertisement for the United States. And James B. Swindal was at home in its left seat. He even told a Chicago Tribune reporter, five years ago, that he turned down chances to go back and enjoy lunch as a guest of the President and First Lady.
"The Kennedys invited me to join them for lunch a couple of times, but I couldn't ever do it. You fellows in the media would've had a field day if I were back there eating steak in the president's dining room and a near-miss occurred."
Kennedy would make sociable visits to the cockpit, but never stay long; a wartime injury left him in constant back pain, and a 707 cockpit doesn't offer room to stand up.
Together, Kennedy, Swindal and SAM 26000 made a number of historic flights. They flew to Berlin in June 1963, where Kennedy roused the spirits of the those in the suddenly walled-off city by declaring, "Ich bin ein Berliner." Language students who smirked at his Hahvahd accent and clunky grammar missed the point, but the people of free Berlin didn't. (Decades later, sister plane 27000 would carry another President to Berlin for another vital Cold War speech). See BRANDENBURG GATE TO ZIPPERGATE
At Kennedy's funeral at Arlington Cemetery, SAM 26000 conducted an overflight at 1000 feet and dipped its wings in salute....
Afterwards, he flew LBJ several times, but LBJ preferred another pilot, James Cross, and LBJ had a very different style than the Kennedys had done. Swindal moved on to other duties, and retired in 1971 from a job flying a desk in support of Cape Canaveral, to nearby Cape Coral.
Swindal was born into a carpenter's family on August 18, 1917, in West Blocton, Alabama, a tiny village southwest of Birmingham and almost exactly centered in Alabama. He worked in a factory in Birmingham's signature iron industry until Pearl Harbor brought the war to America, and Swindal to the Army Air Corps and adventures in the thin air over the Himalayas and the tense corridors to Berlin.
Many military pilots fly for fun after retirement; Swindal didn't. Indeed, he didn't even travel by plane, and only flew as a passenger once after retiring, to go to his brother's funeral in California. He didn't care for not being in charge, family members said. He is survived by his wife, the former Emily Glover; two children; two grandchildren; and one great-grandson.
We said that Swindal was the last significant survivor of that flight, and that's not entirely true. The airplane survives today, and can be seen at the National Museum of the United States Air Force at Wright-Patterson AFB in Dayton, Ohio. SAM 26000 is the crown jewel of a hangar dedicated to Presidential aircraft at the Museum. If you ride the shuttle to the Presidential hangar, you can still see where Swindal's crewmen cut the back bulkhead of 26000.
PRESIDENT KENNEDY'S FUNERAL TIMELINE
by Soulful Tributes
About 1:30 p.m:
Air Force One is circling between Andrews Air Force Base and Washington, awaiting a signal to begin its run for the Arlington National Cemetery flyby.
Pilot James B. Swindal: "We wanted to get as close as we could, safely, without interfering with Washington National (Airport) traffic so it wouldn't take us too long to get there once we were cleared to do it."...
Fifty jet fighters, flying in a V formation with the last plane missing to symbolize the fallen leader, roar over the cemetery, and then Air Force One dips its wings over the grave.
Metzler: "The most difficult thing, I think, of the whole bit -- they wanted that flyby to come as the body was approaching the grave.... "Now when you give the signal to go, they're going to be there in 10 minutes. And as it turned out, they flew over just as the body got to the grave."
Swindal: "We were in radio contact with the radar controller at Washington National Airport.... We could see the fighter planes also. We knew we'd follow them. They were so much faster, they got a little ahead of us, but we did OK...."Once the fighters went we were right behind them. We dipped our wings and made a big circle right back to Andrews and landed."
Assistant press secretary Kilduff: "Suddenly, seeing this flight of fighters come across, just screaming jets, with one plane missing from the formation -- that was heart-wrenching. Then Air Force One coming across the same way. "I never saw a plane that size fly so low in my life. And it came over, and dipped its wings, before it took off and gained altitude."
Powers: "I can remember Air Force One, flying over. He loved that plane."
Col. James B. Swindal (Air Force One pilot flew slain JFK home). New York Times, May 7, 2006 (...Col. Swindal was monitoring the Secret Service frequency from his cockpit while Kennedy rode in a downtown motorcade. At 12:30 p.m., he heard the voice of a Secret Service agent, Roy Kellerman, from Kennedy's limousine: "Lancer is hurt. It looks bad. We have to get to a hospital." Lancer was Kennedy's Secret Service code name. Soon afterward, the Secret Service communications gear on Air Force One went dead. Col. Swindal, who relived those moments in "The Death of a President" by William Manchester, received a phone call from the Kennedy entourage telling him to fuel his plane for a return to Andrews Air Force Base outside Washington. But he was given no explanation. Only by watching the plane's television sets did he learn that Kennedy had been shot....)
Secret Service Code Names, JFK Library (...JFK was "Lancer"; Jackie was "Lace"; Air Force One was "Angel"; Colonel James Swindal was "Tiger"...)
Air Force One Beginning, Aviation Zone (...In 1962, a VC-137B specifically purchased for use as "Air Force One", entered into service with the tail number 26000. It is perhaps the most widely known and most historically significant presidential aircraft. Aircraft 26000 returned President Kennedy's body to Washington, D.C. following his assassination on 22 November 1963. Lyndon B. Johnson was sworn into office as the 36th president on board the aircraft at Love Field in Dallas. This fateful aircraft also was used to return President Johnson's body to Texas following his state funeral on 24 January 1973. The original paint scheme was designed at the request of President Kennedy, who wanted the airplane to reflect the spirit of the national character. He also directed that the words "United States of America" appear prominently on the fuselage, and that the U.S. flag be painted on the vertical stabilizer. The result was a striking blue and white color scheme that has more or less carried to this day...)
James B. Swindal buried at Arlington National Cemetary (Section 66, Site 7365)
Reserved, patriotic and seeing it as his devout duty, he flew presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson as Air Force One's aircraft commander. But he probably wouldn't have told you that or that he flew missions between China and Burma during World War II. The Cocoa Beach resident probably would've told you that he was happily married to his high school sweetheart, Emily Swindal, for 70 years and that he's proud of his family. Retired Air Force Colonel James B. Swindal died Tuesday, April 25, 2006 at Cape Canaveral Hospital. He was 88. "Jim Swindal will always be a hero to me, He was soft-spoken and self-effacing", said Cecil Stoughton* of Merritt Island, who served as an in-house White House photographer. See LBJ FAMOUS PHOTO OP
Swindal was born August 18, 1917, in West Blocton, Alabama, the son of the late Samuel and Miranda Swindal. He worked as a crane operator at a cast iron pipe shop in Birmingham, Alabama, when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor, which prompted him to enlist in the Army in 1942, said his 68-year-old son, James Swindal. He was selected as a flying cadet in the Air Corps. Years later, Swindal served during Kennedy's administration, including on November 22, 1963, when the president was assassinated. Kennedy had appointed Swindal to colonel a year earlier.
"The day of the assassination was one of the closest I got to Jim, when the president passed away," said Stoughton, who did not have a designated seat on the plane that day. "Jim said, 'If all the seats are taken you could ride up here with us'", Stoughton recalled. "Obviously, he was a take-charge guy. He knew that my job was important, as was his." Swindal considered the flight from Dallas to Washington, D.C., after Kennedy was assassinated, his most difficult. Room was cleared in the back of the Boeing 707 to return Kennedy home in a coffin. Swindal also served during part of the Johnson administration. Swindal had impressed the Texan by landing a Boeing 707 on a grass strip on a ranch, his grandson, Jonathan, recalled. After Swindal retired, he refused to fly, opting to drive with his wife across the country in a Cadillac, in the sunshine, visiting military bases and golf courses, said one of his grandsons, 33-year-old Jonathan Swindal. "After he stopped flying Air Force One, he would not fly on an airplane, because if he's not in charge, he didn't want anything to do with it," Jonathan Swindal said. He is survived by his wife; daughter, Kathryn Swindal of Leesburg, Virginia; son, James L. Swindal of East Hampton, Connecticut; grandsons J. Christian Swindal and Jonathan Swindal, both of Connecticut; and great-grandson, Mason Swindal of Connecticut....Services and interment will be at Arlington National Cemetery in Virginia.
*JFK Photographer Cecil Stoughten Dies at 88 (took only photo of LBJ swear-in on AF-1; filmed Bobby Kennedy funeral train). Florida Today, Nov 3, 2008
JFK's Air Force One earns rest, Cincinatti Ohio Enquirer, May 20, 1998
The first Air Force One will make its last flight today. The Boeing 707 that was the primary aircraft for U.S. presidents from 1962 through 1972 will arrive this morning at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio, from Andrews Air Force Base in Maryland. After a month of preparation, the plane known as 26000 (pronounced "two, six-thousand") will join eight other former presidential aircraft on display at the U.S. Air Force Museum. The plane, most noted for carrying President Kennedy's casket from Dallas to Washington in 1963 following his assassination, is considered the nation's most historic plane.... "It was a top-notch plane," said retired Air Force Col. James Swindal, 80, who piloted the presidential plane from 1960 through 1965. "All of those 707s were. This was the first intercontinental model. "It could fly non-stop to Europe or Hawaii. It was well laid out inside. The communications and telephone systems were almost like being in the White House." Col. Swindal, who lives in Cocoa Beach, Fla., and will attend today's retirement ceremony at Wright-Patterson is one of several presidential insiders who have bittersweet memories of 26000.
"It was a much faster, much larger plane than we had ever flown," said retired Air Force Master Sgt. John Hames, 62, of Connersville, Ind.. He worked as a steward from 1960 through 1975 aboard Air Force One. "It was so much faster that we had less time to prepare meals, but we got the job done." Master Sgt. Hames was one of five stewards who cleaned and stocked 26000 with food and beverages. President Kennedy was a "great person for soup. It was a comfort food for him," Master Sgt. Hames said.... Col. Swindal was aboard the plane listening to the Secret Service radio when the president was shot. "My first reaction was to get the plane ready in a hurry to get back to Walter Reed (Hospital in Washington)," he said. "We hoped it was a wound. When we heard he had died, we wanted to make sure nothing else went wrong. I got off the plane and saluted the casket when it arrived." Master Sgt. Hames was among the crew members who removed seats and a wall from a rear section of the plane, so President Kennedy's casket would not have to go in the cargo hold. "We served a lot of beverages (Scotch) on the way back," Master Sgt. Hames said in an interview from Connersville, where he manages a country club. "It was a long ride back to Washington. Nobody wanted to eat. Mrs. Kennedy was in shock. She still had on the blood-stained clothes."...
Col. Swindal recalls flying into West Berlin in June 1963. That's where President Kennedy delivered his "Ich bin ein Berliner" speech. "The Russians put MiGs (fighter planes) up on both our wings so we would stay in the corridor over East Germany to West Berlin. They didn't want us to spy," said Col. Swindal, who had experience flying into Berlin. In 1947, he flew coal, oil and other supplies into West Berlin as part of the airlift to counter the Soviet blockade. Master Sgt. Hames remembers how pleased President Nixon was aboard Air Force One after completing diplomatic missions to China and the Soviet Union in 1972. Even after it was placed into a secondary role in December 1972, 26000 still carried presidents -- as many as three at a time for the 1981 funeral of slain Egyptian President Anwar Sadat. Former Presidents Nixon, Ford and Carter were aboard for the flight to Cairo, as was President Reagan's representative, Secretary of State Alexander Haig, who commandeered the executive quarters. At one point, crew members recall seeing the three former presidents and former Secretary of State Henry Kissinger all waiting in line to use the general restroom.
Gone West: Col. J.B. Swindal, 88 (JFK's Air Force One Pilot Flew JFK To Dallas -- And LBJ Back), Aero-News, May 1, 2006
Berlin Airlift, 1948-1949 (After World War II, a defeated Germany was divided by the victorious powers of the United States, the Soviet Union, Great Britain and France into four occupation zones. Deep within the Soviet zone – the eastern part of Germany – lay Berlin, a capital city all but leveled by aerial bombing from American and British bombers and the final terrible battle of the war between Russian and German forces. Berlin too was divided four ways, and more than two million people lived in its three western sectors. But on June 24, 1948, the Soviet Union cut off the food and supplies that were being carried into those western sectors daily by road, rail, and river barge. All during the previous year, the Soviets had sponsored coups that had replaced the struggling democracies of the nations of Eastern Europe with puppet regimes — and the eyes of the world had been focused on Berlin with the knowledge that the Soviets would intervene there next. Berlin would be where the U.S. and U.S.S.R. would face off, and the Soviet advance across the continent would be halted or allowed....)
The History of Air Force One (Diplomatic Drawing Power), by Timothy A. Long, Major, USAF
JFK Funeral Time Line (minute by minute). Soulful Tributes
JFK TRUTH & UNTRUTH & JFK ASSASSINATION PUZZLE PIECES
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